Fungi Photos Group O
Nidula emodensis to Phellodon niger
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, "Bird's Nest Fungus", (Latin: nidula; little nest) is a common wood-rotting fungus found world-wide on forest litter on the ground. It is shaped like a little bowl (to 5 mm wide, 6 mm high), tapering towards the base, with grey-brown hairs on the outside, smooth inside. It has many reddish brown "eggs" inside, which are packages of spores, thought to be scattered by water drops. The cup is covered by a buff cover when very young. NB: There is a related species, N. niveotomentosa, which has vertical sides to the cup.
Other species of bird's nest fungi are larger. ABRS ref Australian Fungi Blog ref Mt Drummer Rainforest Walk, near Cann River, June, 2008. 87 kB
Nidula emodensis - see previous. Mt Drummer Rainforest Walk, near Cann River, June, 2008. 47 kB
Nidula emodensis - see previous. Mt Drummer Rainforest Walk, near Cann River, June, 2008. 62 kB
Nidula emodensis - see previous. Mason's Falls, Kinglake National Park, 2007. 41 kB
, "Ghost Fungus", is a common, large, Australian wood-rotting fungus found in groups or tiers on rotting logs, occasionally on live trees. Bioluminescence makes it glow green in the darkness, and it is toxic. The cap is fan-shaped, to 150 mm, fleshy, shades from cream to brown, with yellow or purplish tinges. Gills decurrent, deep, close, cream; spore print white. Stem robust, usually eccentric, curved; cream, purplish near base. Wikipedia ref Morwell NP ref Myrtle Loop Walk, The Beeches, Marysville, 2008. 47 kB
. These specimens were growing in woodland next to horse dung. They are almost certainly Panaeolus or maybe Panaeolina, from the association with dung, but also based on general appearance: they were identified as such by experts on the day. But the cap colour is darker than images in my books or the net. Panaeolus have mottled dark brown gills, but I'm not sure of the gill colour of these; Panaeolus have black or purple-brown spores. This genus is interesting because most species contain the hallucinogic substances psilocin and psilocybin. Wikipedia ref Jack Cann Reserve, Blackwood, 2007. 45 kB
Panaeolus sp. - see previous. Jack Cann Reserve, Blackwood, 2008. 37 kB
Panaeolus sp. - see previous. This picture shows the horse dung in which these fungi were growing. Jack Cann Reserve, Blackwood, 2008. 78 kB
Panellus pusillus, "Little Ping-pong Bats", earlier called Dictypanus pusillus, is widespread, especially in troops along rotting logs, it being a wood-rotting fungus (saprotrophic). It is found in many countries. With pale buff caps to 15 mm, kidney-shaped, with short laterally-attached stalks, it has large pores underneath, about 3 per mm. Strangely, it closely related genetically to the gilled fungus Panellus stipticus, but is smaller. Apparently, both can be luminous in the dark. Spore print white. Sherbrooke Forest, 2003. 66 kB
Panellus pusillus - see previous. Mt Drummer Rainforest Walk, East Gippsland, 2009. 58 kB
Panellus pusillus - see previous. Close-up of coarse pores underneath. Sherbrooke Forest, 2003. 51 kB
is a world-wide common wood-rotting fungus growing in groups on or underneath rotting logs. It is distinguished by small amounts of sticky latex issuing from bruised or damaged gills, and small cross-members between gills. Caps to 25 mm, off-white to pale brown, smooth, kidney-shaped; margins inrolled; stem eccentric, almost stemless. Gills sticky, as stated, and cross-members evident; sticky off-white latex; spore print white (cf. Crepidotus spores brown). Stem lateral, off-white, very short. Taste bitter. Some strains reported as bioluminescent. Mushroom Expert ref MycoKey ref Doctor's Creek walking track, Reefton, 2007. 47 kB
Panellus stipticus - see previous. Myrtle Loop Walk, The Beeches, Marysville, 2005. 38 kB
, "Pleated Inkcap", or "Little Japanese Umbrella", (previously Coprinus plicatilis) is a common wood-rotting fungus found especially on soil, grass, mulch, etc., with buried rotting wood. Found world-wide, it is distinctive in appearing in the morning and withering by the afternoon (i.e., ephemeral), and having the gills attached to a small collar. Cap to 25 mm, grey to buff, with a marked pleated appearance; with a tan, finally depressed centre; almost cylindrical at first, opening to almost flat. Gills at first pinkish-tan, finally black; spore print black. Gills attached to a tiny collar around the stem, which is very slender, off-white. Biopix ref MycoKey ref Melba Gully, Otway Ranges, 2008. 22 kB
Parasola plicatilis - see previous. Melba Gully, Otway Ranges, 2008. 44 kB
Parasola plicatilis - see previous. Melba Gully, Otway Ranges, 2008. 43 kB
is a Northern Hemisphere mycorrhizal fungus introduced to Australia with exotic trees, such as pine, beech, oak; grows as groups. Cap to 150 mm, convex becoming funnel-shaped, marked inrolled margin (Latin: involutus; inrolled); colour dull brown shades from olive to tan, radially zoned. Gills decurrent, close, yellow-brown ageing to brown, bruising brown-black; spore print yellowish-brown. Stem dark brown, bruising brown-black. Deadly poisonous. Wikipedia ref Mycoweb ref Silvan Reservoir, 2005. 42 kB
Paxillus involutus - see previous. Silvan Reservoir, 2005. 46 kB
Paxillus involutus - see previous. Silvan Reservoir, 2005. 47 kB
, "Recurved Cup", "Palamino Cup", (repanda: Gk = curved up) is a wood-rotting ascomycete cup fungus found widely throughout the world, gregariously in forests and gardens on rotting wood and humus. Cups to 100 mm, recurved inward when young, flattening when older. Inner fertile surface smooth, chestnut to ochraceous brown, outer surface lighter colour, fuzzy. Flesh brown, brittle. Stem often absent, and if present, only when young, if at all; body mainly just attached directly to mycelium. Spores white. NB: Taxonomy in flux, and likely to be renamed Peziza varia. Wikipedia ref Mushroom Expert ref Rogers Mushrooms ref Mt Drummer Rainforest Walk, near Cann River, June, 2010.
Peziza repanda - see previous. Mt Drummer Rainforest Walk, near Cann River, June, 2010.
Peziza repanda - see previous. Garden mulch, Dandenong, Sept, 2010.
is a wood-rotting ascomycete cup fungus growing especially on burnt ground, in groups and clumps; common after bushfires. I think it occurs in many countries. This specimen was on campfire charcoal at a picnic spot, flat on the charcoal. Cups to 30 mm, smooth inside, rougher outside; translucent violet when young, to browner when old. Spore print white. Grows flat on the substrate. Blue Swami ref Mt Drummer Rainforest Walk, near Cann River, June, 2008. 58 kB
Peziza thozetii is a wood-rotting fungus growing in groups on moist soil, especially among mosses. Cups to 30 mm, fleshy, deep olive-brown with inrolled margins; smooth but finely pitted inside, rougher outside. Spore print white. Fuhrer mentions lime-rich soils and pines, but these specimens were in eucalypt forest and coastal heathland. It also appears that there are numerous brown cup fungi separable only microscopically. Ned's Gully, Cathedral Range, 2007. 45 kB
Peziza thozetii - see previous. Devilbend Reservoir, Mornington Peninsula, 2007. 50 kB
Peziza thozetii - see previous. Devilbend Reservoir, Mornington Peninsula, 2007. 47 kB
Peziza thozetii - see previous. Devilbend Reservoir, Mornington Peninsula, 2007. 52 kB
are a world-wide genus of wood-rotting fungi that grows on stumps and logs, as well as being parasitic on living trees, eventually killing them by heart-rot (Latin: phellinus ; cork). Phellinus grow as flat sheets of pores, as brackets with pores underneath, or often form large hoof-shaped dense, woody bodies, as shown in these images; the upper colour is dark brown to black, often with cracks. The species of these images are not known, but the form is characteristic, especially with the underneath fertile surface consisting of very fine pores. ANBG ref Devilbend Reservoir, Mornington Peninsula, 2008. 58 kB
Phellinus sp. - see previous. Devilbend Reservoir, Mornington Peninsula, 2008. 79 kB
Phellinus sp. - see previous. Healesville Sanctuary, 2009. 76 kB
Phellinus sp. - see previous. This specimen was growing on a living Prunus on the nature strip. It has spread underneath the adjacent bark, and there were several fruiting bodies like this one with its bright orange fertile surface, growing over a period of four months. I am otherwise unsure of its identity. Jack Cann Reserve, Blackwood, 2005. 41 kB
is a mycorrhizal fungus found world-wide, growing alone or in groups on soil in forests and heathlands, sometimes fusing together. Caps to 50 mm, flat to funnel-shaped, tough and leathery, radially silky-striate, zoned colours from blue-black ageing to black, but margin pale grey. Teeth underneath tiny, pale grey-lilac when fresh; can be quite shallow; spore print white; slightly decurrent. Stem short, stout, tough, black, tapering to base. Nature Photo ref MycoKey ref Jack Cann Reserve, Blackwood, 2005. 52 kB
Phellodon niger - see previous. Doctor's Creek walking track, Reefton, 2007. 51 kB
Phellodon niger - see previous. Doctor's Creek walking track, Reefton, 2007. 42 kB
Phellodon niger - see previous. Jack Cann Reserve, Blackwood, 2008. 39 kB